a labelled single stranded length of DNA that's complementary to the section of DNA being investigated, - to locate a specific gene for use in genetic engineering, - recombinant DNA technology because it involves combinind DNA from different organisms, a composite DNA molecule created in vitro by joining foreign DNA with a vector molecule such as a plasmid. what are the ways in which DNA can be manipulated? a characteristic where both alleles present in the genotype contribute to the phenotype. by a mouthswab, protein electrophoresis can identify the type of Hb produced by an individual, and can be used to diagnose sickle cell anaemia. the process is the same as for separating DNA fragments, but. in artificial selection, what is the selecting agent? Practical Skills in Biology . pearls collected from mussels), because species are being harvested faster than they can replenish themselves, - many plant & animal species provide a valuable food resource, - every species has value & humans have an ethical responsibility to look after them, ecotourism relies on biodiversity, as does recreation, some management strategies to maintain biodiversity, - raising the carrying capacity by providing extra food. - enzyme molecules are bound by hydrophobic interactions & ionic bonds to the immobilising support, - enzymes are trapped in a matrix (e.g. DNA is obtained from an individual e.g. how is gene sequencing used to predict aa sequences? Module 3: Exchange and transport. Module 6: Genetics, Evolution and Ecosystems. regulatory mechanisms that control gene expression at post-transcriptional level, regulatory mechanisms that control gene expression at post-translational level, - proteins must be activated by cAMP by phosphorylation, a homeotic gene that contains a homeobox sequence consisting of 180 base pairs that codes for a homeodomain sequence, binds to DNA & acts as a transcription factor. Start studying A Level Biology OCR A Module 2 Chapter 6 Cell division. OCR A LEVEL BIOLOGY [Basic Components of Living Systems] (Year 1) THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH... 42 terms . Revision Notes for A-Level OCR Biology A. OCR A2 Biology Module 6: Genetics, evolution and ecosystems Join now If you're ready to pass your OCR A-Level Biology exams, become a member now to get complete access to our entire library of revision materials. Revision Notes for A-Level OCR Biology A. The modules can be summarised as: Module 1: Development of practical skills – this module underpins the whole of the specification, and covers the practical skills that students should develop throughout the course. OCR A2 Level Biology - Module 6.1. Shop OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6. Perfect revision resources for OCR A Level Biology. - not all organisms are completely eaten, because some parts may be inedible. what are the 4 steps in the nitrogen cycle? It initiates transcription and is involved in the control of development & the body plan. Free shipping and pickup in store on eligible orders. Read OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6 book reviews & author details and more at Amazon.in. how many genes are involved in characteristics that exhibit discontinuous variation? These are highly variable short repeating lengths of DNA & the exact no of STRs varies from person to person, A biomedical technology in molecular biology that can amplify a short length of DNA to thousands of millions of copies, to amplify & make many copies of DNA with a range of different lengths, 1. mix the DNA sample with DNA nucleotides, primers, magnesium ions & Taq DNA polymerase. This last section of the Biology A specification links back to teaching Module 4, particularly 4.2.1 Biodiversity, as well as 6.3.1 Ecosystems. - there has been very little change by mutation in homeobox genes because these genes are very important & mutation would alter the body plan. what does E. coli usually use as a respiratory substrate? Since prokaryotic DNA is circular, it needs operon to start transcription. A-level OCR Biology Notes: Exchange & Transport (Module 3) 1. temperature, soil pH, light intensity & oxygen concentration), an organism that converts simple inorganic compounds to complex organic compounds & supplies chemical energy to other organisms, an organism that gains energy from complex organic matter, each of the feeding levels in a food chain, all of the organisms of 1 species, who live & breed together in the same place, at the same time, the role that the species plays in an ecosystem, changes that repeat themselves in a rhythm (e.g. - most plant cells are totipotent, so retain their ability to differentiate, 1. make a cut across the stem between the leaf joints where there's meristem tissue, growing large numbers of new plants from meristem tissue taken from a sample plant. Free delivery on qualified orders. characteristics that exhibit discontinuous variation are usually determined by the alleles of a single gene locus, so they're monogenic. Sylvia Grice, OCR Science Subject Advisor. when a fertilised egg (zygote) divides as normal, but the 2 daughter cells then split to become 2 separate cells. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. GENETICS, EVOLUTION AND ECOSYSTEMS BIOLOGY NOTES MODULE 6 snaprevise.co.uk 2. at what level do hox genes & apoptosis control gene expression? Exam Board: OCR Level: AS/A-level Subject: Biology First Teaching: September 2015 First Exam: Summer 2016 Reinforce students' understanding throughout their course with clear topic summaries and sample questions and answers to help your students target higher grades. Module 2: Foundations in biology. Decks: Plant Responses Module 5, 211 Cell Structure, 212 Biological Molecules, And more! antibiotics). Module 6: Biotechnology, Cellular control, Patterns of inheritance, Ecosystems, Manipulating genomes, Populations and sustainability. Revision Notes for A-Level OCR Biology A. treatments for breast and prostate cancer), GM goats / sheep can have genes for pharmaceutical proteins inserted into them, so they express the human protein in their milk & it can be harvested, gene therapy used to modify the genetic information carried in gametes or zygotes by inserting functional alleles into gametes or zygotes, gene therapy by inserting functional alleles into body cells, the use of gene technology to treat genetic disorders, which usually involves adding a functional copy of a gene to cells which only contain a dysfunctional copy. - grow rapidly in favourable conditions, with a generation time of as little as 30 minutes, cons of using microorganisms in biotechnological processes. reviews. 1. - the base sequence of a normal allele & known alternatives are held in a database, the study of changes in organisms caused by modification of gene expression, rather than alteration of the genetic code itself. - a species whose population size is determined by the carrying capacity (e.g. 1. penicillin is a secondary metabolite of fungus, so is manufactured by batch culture. potatoes), - if conditions for growth are good for parents, they'll also be good for offspring. 2. As the population increases again it is less genetically diverse than before, When a small sample of an original population establishes in a new area, its gene pool isn't as diverse as that of the parent population, the equations involved in the Hardy-Weinberg Principle, p = frequency of dominant allele in a population (B), the splitting of a genetically similar population into 2 or more populations that undergo genetic differentiation & eventually reproductive isolation, leading to the evolution of 2 or more new species, formation of 2 different species from 1 original species due to geographical isolation, formation of 2 different species from 1 original species due to reproductive isolation, in which the population inhabit the same geographical location, selective breeding of organisms, which involves humans choosing the desired phenotype of an organism & interbreeding the desired phenotypes, therefore selecting the genotypes that contribute to the gene pool of the next generation. It is a PDF Document that I will email to you once you purchase it. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Module 6: Genetics, evolution and … OCR AS/A . why does artificial selection cause inbreeding depression? OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6 by Richard Fosbery 9781471859182 (Paperback, 2016) Delivery US shipping is usually within 7 to 11 working days. how are microorganisms used in the production of penicillin? See details - OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6 9781471859182 | Brand New Module 6: Biotechnology, Cellular control, Patterns of inheritance, Ecosystems, Manipulating genomes, Populations and sustainability. Module 1: Practical Skills in Biology. Chapter 2 (PDF) Chapter 3 (PDF) Chapter 4 (PDF) Chapter 5 (PDF) Chapter 6 (PDF) Chapter 7 (PDF) Chapter 8 (PDF) Chapter 9 (PDF) Biology A AS/Year 1. at what level does the lac operon control gene expression? The course includes six modules as follows: Module 1: Practical skills. polyacrylamide gel has a greater resolving power, and you can see DNA strands that differ in length by 1 base pair. 1. mRNA is transcribed by the regulatory gene. Factsheets, Articles, PowerPoints, Revision Notes and Practice Questions for OCR (A) A Level Biology: Module 3: Exchange and Transport. methylation of DNA, which causes transcriptional silencing. what are the 3 principles for the management of fisheries proposed by the marine stewardship council? Visit author shop. The notes are on module 3 for the OCR A course. how are natural clones of an animal produced? 1. at each stage of the selective breeding programme, individuals with the desired traits are selected, Increased heterozygosity giving increased vigour of fertility growth & survival, phenotypic traits that have been selected for in dairy cows, long lactation period, high milk quality, large udders, resistance to disease, calm temperament, large yield / volume of milk, modern techniques used in the selective breeding of animals, artificial insemination, IVF, progeny testing, use of a surrogate mother, cloning, use of gene probes, an organism's complete set of DNA, including both the genes & the non-coding sequences of DNA, a technique that allows genes to be isolated and read. Hello Select your address Black Friday Deals Best Sellers Gift Ideas Electronics Customer Service Books New Releases Home Computers Gift Cards Coupons Sell Papers you will sit at the end of the second year: Paper 2: Biological diversity, Modules 1, 2, 4 & 6 (includes practical skills) 37% of A level Written paper 2 hours 15 minutes 100 marks (Section A multiple choice questions, 15 marks. OCR A2 Biology Module 6: Genetics, evolution and ecosystems Join now If you're ready to pass your OCR A-Level Biology exams, become a member now to get … Business, Office & Industrial. The alterations made to the patient's genome in those cells aren't passed on to their offspring. The images show how the notes are laid out. These revision notes include all the information needed for module 6 of this syllabus. by grazing or when a lawn is mowed), a final stable community that exists after the process of selection has occurred, the maximum population size that can be maintained over a period in a particular habitat, Any biotic or abiotic factor whose magnitude slows down the rate of a natural process, population size and carrying capacity graph. 1. milk undergoes fermentation by Lactobacillus bulgaricus & Streptococcus thermophilus. why may bioinformatics be useful in determining whether a newly sequenced allele causes a genetic disease? why is the binding of SDS to proteins necessary for protein electrophoresis? sharks) & commerce (e.g. in Biology. Click below to view the answers to practice questions in the A Level Sciences for OCR A and OCR B Student Books. Biology, Module 6 OCR. Large areas aren't felled at the same time, so loss of species & soil erosion are avoided. how can the gene be placed into the vector? the absence of unwanted microbes which could: why should you place petri dishes upside down? Biology A (H020 /H420) Module . Please send me a message with your email address in upon purchase. - it's easier to sequence an organism's genome than polypeptides, the area of biology concerned with designing & building useful biological devices & systems. Circuit Boards & Electronic Components; Electrical & Test Equipment; Industrial 1. the gene for human insulin is combined with a plasmid to act as a vector, so the gene can be inserted into an E. coli cell, the use of microorganisms to clean the soil & underground water on polluted sites. EXCHANGE AND TRANSPORT BIOLOGY NOTES MODULE 3 snaprevise.co.uk 2. why are microorganisms often used in biotechnological processes? Papers you will sit at the end of the second year: Paper 2: Biological The OCR A level Biology course is made up of 6 modules: 1.Development of practical skills in biology Operon is a short stretch of DNA which involves structural genes, control elements and regulatory gene. how are microorganisms used to make wine and beer? lactose, because it induces the production of the enzymes lactose permease, which allows lactose to enter the bacterial cell, and B-galactosidase, which hydrolyses lactose to glucose & galactose. Find study resources for. Study mode: Full Time Qualification: AS/A Level Level: Level 3 Subject area: Sciences. A Level Biology OCR A notes. somatic cell gene therapy only targets & affects specific cells. The following outlines the topics and exam structure. how many genes are involved in characteristics that exhibit continuous variation? Factsheets, Articles, PowerPoints, Revision Notes and Practice Questions for OCR (A) A Level Biology: Module 3: Exchange and Transport. Company Registration Number: 61965243, Stuvia is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university, Essential Environment: The Science Behind the Stories, Everything's an Argument with 2016 MLA Update, Managerial Economics and Business Strategy, Primates of the World: An Illustrated Guide, The State of Texas: Government, Politics, and Policy. it is a strand complementary to the initial single stranded DNA sequence, fast, cheap methods to sequence genomes developed in the 21st century, the stages in pyrosequencing (a type of high throughput sequencing), 1. a length of DNA is cut into fragments of 300 - 800 base pairs using a nebuliser, The collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical & biological information using computers especially as applied in molecular genetics & genomics. They move in 1 direction & last longer than the lifespan of the organisms within the ecosystem (e.g. Please send me a message with your email address in upon purchase. OCR A Level Biology Module 6 (2015 spec) You don't need to know about trp operon. Duration: 2 years Venue: QD Course code: NC105. in Biology. how are microorganisms used to produce insulin? what do the 0.1% differences in DNA between humans arise from? These revision notes include all the information needed for module 5 of this syllabus. Decks: Plant Responses Module 5, 211 Cell Structure, 212 Biological Molecules, And more! 2. bird & larger mammals such as elephants), - a species where the population size increases so quickly that it can exceed the carrying capacity of the habitat before limiting factors start to affect population size (e.g. Click below to view the answers to practice questions in the A Level Sciences for OCR A and OCR B Student Books. OCR AS/A Level Biology A (H020/H420). BTEC. substitutions called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. how are proteins separated using electrophoresis? molecules made in or needed for the cell's normal growth. 1. Production usually begins in the stationary phase. DISCLAIMER The information presented is no way produced or endorsed by any exam board. Biology OCR A A-Level Module 3 Chapter 1 - Exchange surfaces and breathing- Ventilation of lungs. Read "OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6" by Richard Fosbery available from Rakuten Kobo. what are the 4 main stages in genetic engineering? 6 full schemes of work included and all of Module 6, over 30 full lessons at an original price of £36 reduced … 1. how can DNA be visualised after electrophoresis? what are the ways in which the vector can carry the gene to the target cell? the use of living organisms, or parts of living organisms, in industrial processes. Module 2: Foundations in Biology. They are produced by an organism as part of its normal growth, and the production of primary metabolites matches the growth in a population of an organism. Email [email protected] Phone 01952 271 … Module 6: Genetics, Evolution and Ecosystems. how are microorganisms used in the production of cheese? That includes; communication and homeostasis excretion as an example of homeostasis neuronal communication hormonal communication plant and animal responses photosynthesis and respiration. what types of DNA are analysed in DNA profiling? Dr Bhavsar's A level Biology (OCR, A) 6 Decks - 161 Cards - 53 Learners. A Level Biology OCR Biology A H420 Biology A is split into six modules. food supply, predation, disease & competition), the effect of non-living components of an ecosystem on living components (e.g. what was DNA research like in the early 1970s? A Level Pathways. Email [email protected] Phone 01952 271 318 Resources The OCR A level Biology specification is demanding with a wide breadth of content, data analysis and mathematical skills forming major parts of the course. We have worked hard to compile every past paper by topic and exam board! 1. there is a change in the base sequence of the gene, leading to a change in the aa sequence of an enzyme, sickle cell anaemia, cystic fibrosis, albinoism, Down's Syndrome, - an individual receives 3 copies of chromosome 21 instead of 2 due to translocation of a chromosome, proteins, or short non-coding RNA, that can combine with a specific site on a length of DNA and inhibit or activate transcription of the gene. Module 6: Genetics, evolution and ecosystems. Study online or on Brainscape's iPhone, iPad, or Android app. why are immobilised enzymes used in large scale productions? 1. milk is treated with Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which acidifies it, and converts lactose to lactic acid. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6. an earthquake) which decreases genetic diversity. A Level Biology: what to teach right now 06 May 2020 Hints and tips - 5 minute read. Flashcard maker: Aderonke Adesanoye. Once cut, new shoots grow from the cut surface & mature into narrow stems, which can be used for fencing, firewood, or furniture, some mature, diseased & unwanted species of trees are harvested, leaving other trees to develop & distribute seeds to fill the gaps, small strips of forest are cleared completely, leaving other patches untouched. 1. energy is captured by plants, which make organic molecules (e.g. Module 4: Biodiversity, Evolution and Disease. Buds develop at the base of the stem & grow into new plants (e.g. Get this from a library! Level OCR A LEVEL BIOLOGY MODULE 6 ALL TOPICS. DISCLAIMER The information presented is no way produced or endorsed by any exam board. 1. enzymes break down the cell cytoskeleton. what happens in the lac operon in the presence of lactose? a high voltage pulse is applied to the cell to disrupt the plasma membrane & make it more permeable. The course is divided into topics, each containing key concepts in Biology and their applications. Short Tandem Repeat sequences of DNA. 26 terms. what does E. coli use when this is absent? Biodiversity, Evolution and Disease Revision Notes: Biodiversity. It is a PDF Document that I will email to you once you purchase it. So if you’re revising Cell Division for OCR (A) A-Level Biology, you can find all of the Cell Division questions that have been ever asked by OCR in one single document - useful, no? OCR (A) A-Level Biology. a gel bead or network of cellulose fibres), - enzymes are physically separated from the substrate mixture by a partially permeable membrane, enzyme molecules are covalently bonded to a support, often by covalently linking enzymes together & to an insoluble material using a cross linking agent, examples of uses of immobilised enzymes in biotechnology, - glucose isomerase is used in the conversion of glucose to fructose. Notes for the OCR A Level Biology module: Module 6: Genetics, Evolution and Ecosystems. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The rate of reproduction is low & the growth of the population size is slow. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. why does a genome have to be fragmented before sequencing? This is because an environmental change favours a new phenotype & results in a change in the population mean, natural selection that favours individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range. A mutation in the DNA can lead to a stop codon. OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6.. [Richard Fosbery] Schools have now been closed for a while and teachers, students and their families have established their own new version of normal. Exam Board: OCR Level: AS/A-level Subject: Biology First Teaching: September 2015 First Exam: Summer 2016 Reinforce students' understanding throughout their course with clear topic summaries and sample questions and answers to help your students target higher grades. GM E. coli makes human insulin to treat all diabetics & human growth hormone to treat children with pituitary dwarfism, GM microorganisms must be carefully contained - if they're released into the wild they could transfer marker genes for antibiotic resistance to other bacteria, GM soya beans resistant to a certain herbicide have been produced, so weeds competing with the soya plants would be killed by the herbicide, the gene for herbicide resistance could pass into the weeds, creating 'super weeds', - GM viruses, genetically modified to have no virulence, can be used to make vaccines, in gene therapy, genetic modification increases the risk of cancer, GM mice are used for medical research (e.g. Module 2: Foundations in Biology. These revision notes include all the information needed for module 3 of this syllabus. - replacing natural vegetation & fauna with crops & livestock, 1. saprotrophs secrete enzymes onto dead & waste material. ammonium ions or nitrate ions), - the Haber process: nitrogen gas is converted to ammonium and nitrate ions in fertiliser, nitrogenous compounds (proteins) found in dead organic matter are converted into ammonium ions by decomposers involved in putrefaction. OCR A Level Year 2 Biology A Student Guide: Module 6 eBook: Richard Fosbery: Amazon.co.uk: Kindle Store using liposomes, viruses, or artificial chromosomes, germ line therapy involves altering the genome of gametes or zygotes. Subjects. 15 Decks - 219 Cards Adaptive flashcards that help you learn faster using spaced repetition. cancer). OCR A Level Biology Full Time. Plus, free two-day shipping for six months when you sign up for Amazon Prime for Students. (no rating) 0. customer. a characteristic in which the allele responsible is only expressed in the phenotype if there is no dominant allele present, when genes for different characteristics that are present at different loci on the same chromosome are linked, the presence of a gene on 1 of the sex chromosomes, gene loci present on the same autosome that are often inherited together, any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome, how to ensure that the offspring produced when 1 pure-bred plant is crossed with another are only from the desired cross, 1. transfer the pollen to the stigma by hand using a paintbrush, when a phenotype is controlled by a single gene, the inheritance of 2 genes / characteristics, the interaction of different gene loci, so that one gene masks / suppresses expression of another gene locus, when the homozygous recessive allele of one gene is dominant to & masks the expression of either allele of the second gene at the second linked locus, when the dominant allele of one gene masks the expression of all alleles of the second gene at the second linked locus, when the homozygous recessive allele of one gene is dominant to & masks the expression of the dominant allele of the second gene at the second linked locus, complementary epistasis inheritance ratio. 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