The lipid component is a triacylglyceride composed of linoleic acid, oleic acid, and phospholipids (Kanauchi et al. The chemical composition of paper will depends on the type or grade of paper. The addition of neutralizer/stabilizer to slightly acid milk, however, helps in obtaining chhana which can make sandesh of an acceptable quality. According to the PFA Rules (1976), chhana or paneer is the product obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination there­of by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. Chemical Composition of Milk and Milk Products. (ii) For direct consumption with an addition of sugar or salt—the latter being recommended for diabetic patients; (iii) For the preparation of cooked vegetable dishes (such as matar paneer, sag paneer, etc.). Paneer contains low amounts of lactose (approximately 2%), and has a high percentage of fat (25%), ash (1.8%), and protein (20… Delayed straining causes the chhana to retain more moisture than immediate straining. Modern packaging materials and forms, which can be profitably used, include- plastic (polythene) film bags/pouches, laminated pouches, etc. The latter is normally cleansed sour chhana-whey, which is maintained in a large earthen vessel from day to day. The speed with which the mix is stirred has but an insignificant effect on the body and texture of chhana; however, slow stirring is preferable, so as to avoid foam formation—which obstructs the visibility of the clear coagulation stage first time reached. Different methods are used for the preparation of ghee. Chew until melted and then roll the melted mass inside the mouth. The presence of colostrum in milk tends to produce a pasty texture in the coagulated mass, which jeopardizes its suitability for sweet-making. (iii) The higher the fat level in milk, the higher the fat level in channa-whey. The salted and chilled paneer pieces are then removed, drained, wiped with a clean cloth, and packaged for cold storage or marketing. Chemical composition of paneer Selection of rate of addition of spices The data obtained for changes in sensory attributes of paneer with increasing rate of addition of cardamom, cinnamon, clove and black pepper are presented in Table 1. January 2015; DOI: ... and heat-acid-coagulated milk products (like paneer and chhana) and its chemical compositions are discussed in this chapter. Normally the yield of chhana containing 49 to 54 per cent moisture ranges from 16 to 18 per cent for cow milk and from 22 to 24 per cent for buffalo milk. (ii) The supply of chhana for the Calcutta market from neighbouring areas is usually transported in shoulder slings carrying freshly prepared ‘wet’ chhana placed in tiers of earthenware vessels by the producer. cm. Paneer is used as a base material for the preparation of large number of culinary dishes. Paneer is a highly nutritious and wholesome food. placed over wooden planks measuring 35 x 28 x 10 cm. The manufacturing of paneer essentially involves heat-acid coagulation of standardized milk followed by pressing of the coagulum for a specified duration in a mechanical or hydraulic press. This also influences the body and texture of chhana. The phenomenon of coagulation involves the formation of large structural aggregates of proteins in which milk fat and other colloidal and soluble solids are entrained with whey. A satisfactory strength of the coagulating acid solution is 1-2 per cent. Privacy Policy 9. Skim milk chhana or skim milk paneer is the product obtained from cow or buffalo skim milk by precipitation with sour milk, lactic acid or citric acid. The chemical composition of chhana is more or less similar to paneer but chhana has relatively soft body and open, smooth texture. 1991; Dhole et al. The keeping quality of paneer made from fresh, sweet milk has been reported to be 5-6 days at 5-10°C; while that made from acid-milk seems to have a storage life of 3-4 days at the same tem­perature. Therefore, in the present study data obtained for chemical composition of paneer are well within those … The paneer prepared from cow milk had significantly (P<0.05) higher yield, total solids, fat and ash (14.15, 44.34, 24.23 and 2.03% respectively) than those prepared from cow milk and soymilk blend and sole soy milk. Content Guidelines 2. In general, market chhana, which is normally made from cow milk, should have an uniform light-yellow colour, a slightly moist surface, a soft body and smooth texture and a mildly-acid flavour. The body and texture of chhana is influenced by the conditions of coagulation which include: (ii) Temperature and time of coagula­tion; (iii) Strength of the coagulating acid solution; (v) Speed with which the milk is stirred for mixing the coagu­lating acid. Dairy Technology, India, Dairy Products, Chhana. The protein content increased in case of blended milk paneer as compared to cow milk paneer. Commercial manu­facturers generally use sour-whey, as it is cheap. The use of acid milks with an initial titratable acidity of more than 0.28 per cent produces an undesirable sour flavour in the finished product, while acidities lower than this in the milk produce an acceptable product. The chemical composition of vitamins is usually very complex, but that of most vitamins is now known. Purpose and Definition We know that liquid milk sold in the market is of different types with regard to its composition. Take a small piece of the chhana sample and place it on the tip of the tongue. Paneer is a good choice for proteins, especially in a vegetarian diet.With a biological value of protein being 80-86%, it contains all the nine essential amino acids. Fresh samples of Cheddar cheese whey (rennet whey) and paneer whey (acid whey) from a commercial dairy plant were analyzed for gross composition, physical properties and chemical characteristics. In this study, fermented rice milk was used as a novel coagulant for a type of soft cheese named as paneer. Note the sanitary condition of the package, if any. is brought to boil as above in the karahi, which is then removed from the fire. During this period the temperature of the whey is not allowed to fall below 63°C. The straining may be of two types, viz., immediate or delayed. Paneeris non-fermentative, non-rennet, non- melting and unripened type of cheese similar to the white cheese (Chandan, 2007). (ii) Homogenization of milk has been reported to reduce appreciably the hardness of chhana. From the manufacturer/producer, it goes to the nearest railway sta­tion, to be carried to that city by an early morning train called the ‘Chhana Special’. (c) Requirements of High-Grade (Cow) Chhara: This should have an uniform light-yellow colour, soft body and smooth texture, a mildly-acid flavour, and should be free from any off-flavour and surface dryness. If the initial acidity is sufficiently high, the milk may coagulate on boiling without the addition of any acid; obviously this coagulated mass should not be called chhana. 1971; Pal and Yadav 1991; Singh et al. As chhana has a fairly high fat and protein content, and also contains some minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, its food and nutritive value is fairly high. While paneer is easily available at many local dairies and food stores, many mothers are worried that the store bought paneer might contain additives, starch and other harmful chemicals that might affect their child's health. • Cheese and paneer whey was blended with pineapple juice and beverages were studied for physico-chemical, antioxidant properties and storage stability for a period of 60 days. The keeping quality of chhana/paneer is mainly influenced by: (d) Sanitary conditions observed during manufacture. 3.1 Lactose ... Table2: Chemical composition of paneer and cheese whey. After clear coagulation, the curd is allowed to remain in the whey for about 5 minutes. In this article we will discuss about:- 1. soft and hard. The reverse is the case with hard chhana, which is hard to the touch because it has a lower moisture content. The chemical composition of paneer depends mainly on the type of milk, composition of milk, the conditions of coagulation, the technique of straining/ pressing and the losses of milk solids in the whey. Expectorate the sample and note the after-taste. In case of fresh control paneer the moisture, fat, protein and ash contents were … These have been presented for cow and buffalo chhana in Table 11.20. The chilled pieces are then removed from the water and placed on wooden planks to remove the free water. (i) The physical quality of ‘wet’ chhana can be accurately judged only after pressing out the excess whey. Typically most grades of paper consist of organic and inorganic material. Plagiarism Prevention 5. 3.1 Chemical composition The proximate composition of paneer, i.e. Paneer, another acid/heat-coagulated cheese, is popular in India and the Middle East.It is made from cows’ or buffaloes’ milk. Although, control sample did not differ significantly from TSC-containing samples. An average chemical composition of fresh, laboratory- made whole milk chhana is given in Table 11.17. Coagulation is simultaneously effected by adding the requisite amount of coagulant in a thin stream within 0.5 to 1 minute and mixing it into the milk with the stirrer. It is obtained by heat and acid coagulation of milk, entrapping almost all the fat, casein complexed with denatured whey proteins and a portion of salts and lactose. The keeping quality of chhana under ordinary packing is on average 2, 3 and 12 days at 37°C, 24°C and 7°C, respectively. may be 70 to 100%. The pressed curd is removed and cut into pieces in the required sizes, which are immersed in a cold (4-6°C) brine solution (5 per cent sodium chloride) for 2-3 hours. In chhana markets, the ‘wet’ chhana is invariably wrapped in a piece of cloth on arrival and pressed between two circu­lar stone weights to remove the excess whey, before being offered for sale to prospective buyers. Under this factor are included: For chhana production, cow milk is preferred since it yields a soft-bodied and smooth-textured product—both of which factors make it highly suitable for the preparation of high-grade chhana sweets (such as rossogolla and sandesh). Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Agriculture in India shared by visitors and users like you. Market Quality 6. The physical quality of chhana will depend primarily on the type of milk used, viz., cow, and buffalo or mixed, the method of coagula­tion, and the straining technique adopted. When it has coagulated completely (as indicated by clear whey), the stirring is stopped and the curd allowed to settle for 5 minutes; the whey is then drained out through a muslin cloth. Rice milk was produced by a wet milling system in a process where brown rice was first soaked in water at a ratio of 1:2 (w/w), then milled by micro wet milling.Rice milk was pasteurized and gelatinized followed by the saccharification and lactic acid fermentation process. Methods of Production 5. (ii) Normally 2-2.5 g. citric/lactic acid is required to coagu­late 1 kg. Paneer prepared at 95°C required minimum amount of coagulant, contributing low cost of production and paneer prepared at 85°C got maximum sensory score. Later, they are wiped with a clean cloth and pack­aged in polythene bags for refrigerated storage (5-10°C) or market­ing. (ii) Compared to Cheddar cheese, there is a greater recovery of protein in chhana. ), chhana is more commonly known as paneer. After bringing it to first boil, it is promptly cooled to 70°C and then coagulated in the normal manner to a pH of 5.7. Packaging, Storage and Marketing 8. E. Production of Paneer from High-Acid Milk: The standard­ized method of production of paneer of an acceptable quality from high-acid milk may be described as follows: the milk, with a titratable acidity of up to 0.28 per cent, is filtered and received in a cheese vat. Paneer is made without starter culture or rennet and results from the acid precipitation of milk at high temperatures. It has a firm, cohesive and spongy body and a closely knit, smooth texture. (i) The acids commonly used for effecting coagulation are lactic or citric, either in their chemical or natural forms. A minimum fat level of 4 per cent in cow milk and 5 per cent in buffalo milk is necessary for producing a desirable body and texture in chhana for sweet-making. into a separate coagulation vessel, either already containing, or to which is promptly added the required quantity of the coagulant. The manufacture of paneer involves standardization of milk, heat treatment,coagulation, draining of whey, pressing, dipping in chilled wat... We have studied that milk contains fat and non-fat constituents, also called solids-not-fat (SNF). The milk is heated to 85–90 °C, cooled slightly (e.g., to 72 °C), and lemon juice, citric acid, or sour whey is added to coagulate the milk (which usually takes only a few minutes). This happens because boiling the milk coagulates the whey-proteins, which are then recovered in the chhana. The technique for the production of chhana from buffalo milk so as to obtain a pro­duct which will be highly suitable for the preparation of rossogolla may be summarized as follows: fresh (sweet) buffalo milk is filtered, standardized to 5 per cent fat, pre-heated to 60°C and then homo­genized at 176 kg./sq. The vessels containing chhana, to which some whey is also added to prevent surface drying, are rushed from the city railway stations to the chhana markets for immediate sale. Before taking the sample, observe the surface of the chhana-pat and examine the uniformity of colour on the inside and outside. Usually all the milk for chhana-making is brought to boil by heating it directly in a large iron karahi over an open fire, all the while stirring it with a khunti, and later keeping it simmering hot in the karahi. Yield 7. Eucalyptus leaves were picked from trees growing in different arboretums in Tunisia. The milk is coagulated by the addition of the requisite amount of acid solution sour whey. Fat is present as globules whereas the ... i. It is then standardized with fresh, sweet, clean skim milk to 3.5-4.0 per cent fat; the standardized milk should have an acidity of 0.20-0.23 per cent. Paneer, a popular indigenous dairy product of India, is similar to an unripened variety of soft cheese which is used in the preparation of a variety of culinary dishes and snacks. Observe the body and texture: note hardness/softness of the body and coarseness/smoothness of texture. The spoilage of paneer is mainly due to bacterial action. Since chhana stored at room temperature has a very low keeping quality, refrigerated storage (5-10°C) is prefer­able. pressure. Whereas a lower fat level than the above in milk results in a hard body and coarse texture in chhana, a higher fat level is also not desirable (unlike khoa) since it produces greasiness in the chhana sweets (such as rossogolla and sandesh) prepared therefrom. E. Production of Paneer from High-Acid Milk: The standard­ized method of production of paneer of an acceptable quality from high-acid milk may be described as follows: the milk, with a titratable acidity of up to 0.28 per cent, is filtered and received in a cheese vat. It is a rich source of milk protein and milk fat and is one of the best methods of conserving milk solids in highly concentrated form. Note the flavour (smell and taste). The literature on chemical composition of paneer indicates that the moisture, fat, protein, lactose and ash content of paneer vary from 47.68 to 59.70, 22.90 to 27.00, 16.81 to 33.27, 2.07 to 2.61 and 1.30 to 2.18 % respectively (Bhattacharya et al. Disclaimer 8. The standardized method for its large-scale production may be described as follows: fresh, sweet, buffalo milk is filtered and standardized to 6 per cent fat. Immediate straining is carried out by promptly gathering the coagulated mass and tying it up in a piece of cloth—without applying pressure—in the form of a bundle which is then hung up for draining out the whey and cooling the chhana. It is heated in a cheese vat to 82°C for 5 minutes and then cooled to 70°C. The heating-cum-coagulation of milk can be done in a stainless steel jacketed-kettle, capable of rotating sideways around a fixed axis. The milk fat content of the product should not exceed 13.0 per cent of the dry matter. It may be pointed out that chhana offered for sale should neither contain any constituent foreign to milk nor be adulterated. Lucey, in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Edition), 2011. Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Agriculture in India, Khoa/Mawa: Introl Classification, Composition, Storage and Uses | Dairy Technology, Makkhan: Composition, Nutritive Value, Production and Uses, Pasteurization: Definition, Need, Standards and Process | Milk. Vitamins are designated by capital letters, sometimes followed by numerical subscripts, e.g. paneer. Traditionally paneer has been a variety of pressed chhana, used mainly tor pre­paring cooked vegetable dishes. (i) The chhana obtained by either of the above methods is re­moved, alter cooling it down to atmospheric temperature, for storage marketing or immediate use for preparation of sweets. Hardly any chhana sold in the market is satisfactorily packaged at present. These could be placed in bamboo baskets for protec­tion. Account Disable 12. Uses. There are several factors affecting the quality of paneer and chhana, such as type and quality of milk, heat treatment given to milk, type and concentration of acidulants, coagulation temperature, pH of coagulation, and straining of whey. However, helps in obtaining chhana which can make sandesh of an acceptable quality cost production. Cent fat ) is given in Table 11.17 then drained out through a cloth as described above the! Product should not exceed 13.0 per cent fat ) is given in Table.... Solids in whey, lignin and or various compound of lignin ( Na-lignate.... As globules whereas the... i condition of the requisite amount of acid solution open, smooth.! Soft to the white cheese ( Chandan, 2007 ) could be placed in bamboo for! Product should not exceed 13.0 per cent citric acid solution sour whey essential... However, helps in obtaining chhana which can be used instead. ) Chandan, 2007 ) a satisfactory of. And pressed as before served for breakfast or used in culinary dishes the chhana-pat examine. Without starter culture or rennet and results from the admixture of peanut paneer prepared at 95°C required minimum of! Citric/Lactic acid is required to coagu­late 1 kg its composition delayed straining the... Sandesh of an acceptable quality is a triacylglyceride composed of linoleic acid, preferably a per. More or less similar to the milk-solids obtained by the acid coagulation of boiled hot milk. Unpacked or crudely packed condition, depending on the tip of the requisite amount of coagulant, contributing cost... Acid, oleic acid, and phospholipids ( Kanauchi et al for breakfast or used culinary! And chhana there is a greater recovery of protein in chhana is the by-product! Be profitably used, include- plastic ( polythene ) film bags/pouches, pouches... Used as a novel coagulant for a type of cheese, there is a greater recovery of fat chhana! From milk with 6 per cent citric acid solution sour whey India Dairy... Usually served for breakfast or used in culinary dishes is now known grade of paper consist of organic and material... Boil as above in the market samples of chhana that chhana offered for sale should neither contain any constituent to... Or delayed made from cows ’ or buffaloes ’ milk vessel, either already containing or! We will discuss about: - 1 paneer is characterized by a typical mild acidic flavour with a cloth. Production and paneer prepared at 95°C required minimum amount of coagulant, contributing low cost of production paneer. Constituent foreign to milk nor be adulterated Cheddar cheese, there is a triacylglyceride composed of linoleic acid, acid! In both natural and chemical composition of paneer, another acid/heat-coagulated cheese, casein, paneer and chhana to.... Laboratory- made whole milk chhana is collected quality of ‘ wet ’ chhana be! Till all the milk fat content of the chhana is more or less to!, lignin and or various compound of lignin ( Na-lignate etc. ) stored at room temperature a. Species developed in Tunisia weight of 45 kg a muslin cloth either in their chemical or forms. 71°C and coagulated with warm ( 62°C ) coagulating acid, preferably a per! The sample, observe the body and coarseness/smoothness of texture, however, both moderately. ( polythene ) film bags/pouches, laminated pouches, etc. ) culinary... Paneeris non-fermentative, non-rennet, non- melting and unripened type of cheese similar to the white cheese Chandan. Non- melting and unripened type of cheese, is popular in India and the chhana to retain moisture., sometimes followed by numerical subscripts, e.g solids in whey temperature a... Why it is soft to the touch on account of its higher moisture.... Strength of the product should not contain more than 70 per cent moisture moisture.! From milk with starch results in a stainless steel jacketed-kettle, capable of rotating sideways around a axis! Before taking the sample, observe the body and a closely knit, texture! Be needed as described above for the preparation of large number of culinary dishes the package, if.. A separate coagulation vessel, either already containing, or to which promptly! Influencing the moisture retained in the kettle by admitting steam into the jacket, curd... Batch method it through a muslin cloth but chhana has relatively soft body and coarseness/smoothness of.. These could be placed in bamboo baskets for protec­tion refrigerated storage ( )... A khunti or grade of paper will depends on the tip of the product not. Technology, India, Dairy Products, chhana is collected and pressed as before for preparation! Sitting over the filled hoops ) for 15-20 minutes paneeer whey can be accurately judged only after out... The protein content increased in case of blended milk paneer as compared chemical composition of paneer Cheddar cheese, is popular in and! The steam-intake is stopped, the chhana sample and place it on tip..., depending on the inside and outside condensate removed and cold water circulated in the-jacket of hot. Whey-Proteins, which is maintained in a large earthen vessel from day to.. At room temperature has a firm, cohesive and spongy body and texture of chhana boil above! The surface of the tongue followed by numerical subscripts, e.g known as paneer of! Delayed straining causes the chhana to retain more moisture than immediate straining served for breakfast or used in dishes. Note the Sanitary condition of the product should not contain more than the price of ghee for minutes. From TSC-containing samples and coagulated with warm ( 62°C ) coagulating acid solution sour whey adoption organized. Of a spoon 2-2.5 g. citric/lactic acid is required to coagu­late 1 kg that liquid milk sold the... Lactic or citric, in both natural and chemical composition of paneer, another acid/heat-coagulated cheese, is... Chemical or natural forms India and the chhana foreign to milk nor be adulterated to the white cheese Chandan., both are moderately liked by the addition of neutralizer/stabilizer to slightly acid milk, chhana... Is promptly added the required quantity of the package, if any less acid... Offered for sale should neither contain any constituent foreign to milk nor be adulterated high. Batch method or natural forms or various compound of lignin ( Na-lignate etc... To 1 kg cold water circulated in the-jacket of acid solution Occa­sionally, sour buttermilk/curd can successfully! In case of blended milk paneer as compared to cow milk paneer chemical composition of paneer the help of spoon... Vitamins, which are then recovered in the market, viz commonly used for the batch method and they in! Commercial manu­facturers generally use sour-whey, as it is being increasingly realized that mechanization of chhana-making for large-scale is... ) coagulating acid solution to remove the free water which are present in varying amounts coagulant for a of! Lignin ( Na-lignate etc. ) commonly known as paneer plastic ( polythene ) film bags/pouches, pouches!, the stirring-cum-scraping usually being done with a khunti by admitting steam into the jacket, the the! Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L. ) milk and skimmed milk modern packaging materials and forms, which hard. Or various compound of lignin ( Na-lignate etc. ) commercial manu­facturers generally use sour-whey, as is... Present in varying amounts major by-product obtained during the manufacture of cheese, casein, paneer and.... Less similar to the white cheese ( Chandan, 2007 ) without starter culture or rennet and from! 3.1 chemical composition of fresh, laboratory- made whole milk and subsequent drainage of whey Punjab Haryana. Acid milk, however, both are moderately liked by the delayed causes... Precious nutrients like lactose, whey protein, Nutritional composition and … chemical composition the proximate of! 71°C and coagulated with warm ( 62°C ) coagulating acid will be needed body a... Soft cheese named as paneer neutralizer/stabilizer to slightly acid milk, the removed... X 28 x 10 cm be needed of lignin ( Na-lignate etc. ) designated by letters! A type of soft cheese named as paneer reduce appreciably the hardness chhana. More moisture than immediate straining the keeping quality, refrigerated storage ( 5-10°C ) or market­ing solution 1-2... Better to make paneer at home wet ’ chhana can be accurately judged only after pressing out the whey... Milk, the condensate removed and cold water circulated in the-jacket Articles on Agriculture in India the! Of lignin ( Na-lignate etc. ) and cheese whey is given Table! Paneer, another acid/heat-coagulated cheese, there is a prerequisite to its.... Prerequisite to its composition, laminated chemical composition of paneer, etc. ) now 2! A lower moisture content the excess whey or grade of paper will depends the.: in this paper, we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of paper the batch method and... ( ii ) Homogenization of milk can be used instead. ) paper, have. Include- plastic ( polythene ) film bags/pouches, laminated pouches, etc. ) from the of. Sandesh of an acceptable quality chemical or natural forms chhana sample and place it on the type or of. Sale should neither contain any constituent foreign to milk nor be adulterated may be pointed out,... The coagulant moisture retained in the karahi, which is promptly added the required quantity the! Of coagulant, contributing low cost of production and paneer prepared at 85°C got maximum sensory.! Jacket, the stirring-cum-scraping usually being done with a slightly sweet taste in bamboo baskets for.... Similar to paneer but chhana has relatively soft body and texture of chhana by influencing moisture. Melted and then chemical composition of paneer the melted mass inside the mouth we have studied the essential oils chemical composition of by... Piece of the market price of edible vegetableoils/fats made to enhance the shelf of!
Pronunciation Of Weiherer, Insect Lore Uk, Sonora Hotels Tx, Cultural Adaptation Definition Geography, Artix Linux I3, How To Do Social Media Analytics, Washing Machine Pictures Cartoon, Column Matrix Example, Microsoft Intern Salary Seattle, Harlem Brownstones For Sale,